Arab-Israeli Islamist jailed for Jerusalem 'incitement'


Arab-Israeli Islamist jailed for Jerusalem 'incitement' - An Israeli court on Tuesday sentenced firebrand Islamic preacher Sheikh Raed Salah to eight months in prison for inciting Muslims to violence over Jerusalem's Al-Aqsa mosque.

Salah, leader of the radical northern wing of the Islamic Movement in Israel, was convicted in November of inciting "all Muslims and Arabs" in 2007 to "start an intifada (uprising) to support holy Jerusalem and the blessed Al-Aqsa mosque."

Sheikh Raed Salah -- the leader of the radical northern wing of the Islamic Movement in Israel -- arrives at a courthouse in Jerusalem, on March 4, 2014 (AFP Photo/Ahmad Gharabli)

In addition to the eight-month sentence, Salah will serve a further eight months if he repeats the same felony within three years, according to a court document.

Salah, who was born in the northern Arab-Israeli city Umm al-Fahm in 1958, is no stranger to run-ins with the authorities.

In 2011, he was arrested at the Allenby border crossing between the Israeli-occupied West Bank and Jordan after allegedly striking a member of the security forces who wanted to question his wife.

The previous year, he spent five months behind bars for spitting at an Israeli policeman.

The Islamic Movement is tolerated in Israel but is under constant surveillance because of its perceived links with the militant Hamas movement that controls the Gaza Strip, as well as with other Islamist groups worldwide.

The 2007 offence took place during a demonstration against Israeli construction work near the Al-Aqsa mosque compound, in Jerusalem's Old City, and Salah's speech was followed by clashes during which a number of Israeli policemen were injured.

Fighting between police and Palestinians is frequent at the compound, which sits above the Western Wall plaza and houses the Dome of the Rock and the Al-Aqsa mosque, and is Islam's third-holiest site.

It is also Judaism's holiest place, being the site of the first and second Jewish temples.

Demands by Jewish extremists to be allowed to pray there are perceived in the Muslim world as attempts to "Judaise Jerusalem."

This article originally appeared in : Arab-Israeli Islamist jailed for Jerusalem 'incitement' | By AFP | AFP – Tue, Mar 4, 2014

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How deep can a fish go? Scientists may have answer


How deep can a fish go? Scientists may have answer - They may look like guts stuffed in cellophane, but five fish hauled up from near-record depths off the coast of New Zealand are providing scientists with new insights into how deep fish can survive.

In a paper published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, scientists from the U.S., Britain and New Zealand describe catching translucent hadal snailfish at a depth of 7 kilometers (4.3 miles).

This photo taken in late 2011 and released by University of Aberdeen, shows hadal snailfish 7,500 meters down, at the bottom of the Kermadec Trench near New Zealand. Scientists say the snailfish are providing new insights into how deep fish can survive. (AP Photo/University of Aberdeen) MANDATORY CREDIT

By measuring levels of a compound in the fish that helps offset the effects of pressure, the scientists say they've concluded that fish likely can't survive below about 8,200 meters (5.1 miles). That would mean no fish at all live in the deepest one-quarter of the world's oceans.

The snailfish have little pigmentation due to the lack of light in their environment, hence their translucent appearance.

New Zealand marine ecologist Ashley Rowden, a co-author of the paper, said nobody had caught a snailfish in nearly 60 years and so he wasn't overly hopeful when they sent down a box-like trap into the Kermadec Trench near New Zealand in late 2011.

He said they used mackerel as bait to attract the small sandhopper-like creatures the snailfish feed upon.

This photo taken in late 2011 and released by University of Aberdeen, shows a hadal snailfish that was caught in a trap at a depth of 7,000 meters in the Kermadec Trench near New Zealand. Scientists say the snailfish are providing new insights into how deep fish can survive. (AP Photo/University of Aberdeen) MANDATORY CREDIT

"When it came up, it was just amazing to see. It was 'Oh my God, we've got the fish, and we've got more than one,'" Rowden said.

Rowden said he put on gloves and carefully picked up one of the fish.

"It was like a water-filled condom," he said. "A sloppy, gelatinous mass that moves between your hands. It was very cool, and very strange to see its organs and everything."

Rowden, who works at New Zealand's National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, said scientists had previously speculated fish couldn't live below certain depths but that catching the fish and studying them helped provide more scientific certainty.

The fish are the second-deepest recorded catch. In 1970, a boat off the coast of Chile reported catching a cusk eel at a depth of 8,370 meters in a trawl net, although questions remain whether that fish was caught at the ocean floor or higher up as the net was hauled in.

The paper's lead author, Paul Yancey of Whitman College in Washington state, said they were able to measure the levels in the fish of trimethylamine oxide, a molecule that protects proteins from pressure. He said there appears to be a natural limit to the amount of the molecule a fish can contain.

Yancey said the molecule is already being studied for its human applications, including in the treatment of glaucoma.

Meanwhile, he said, if the hadal snailfish look strange enough, they would smell terrible when they decompose. That, he said, is because the molecule has another property — it gives fish their distinctive smell, so the deeper they live, the stronger they stink.

Yancey is keeping his snailfish on ice.

This article originally appeared in :  How deep can a fish go? Scientists may have answer Associated Press | By NICK PERRY | March 5, 2014 10:33 AM

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Budak-Budak Yang Melahirkan Tuannya?


Budak-Budak Yang Melahirkan Tuannya? Masyarakat dunia hari ini diakui atau tidak, pada kenyataannya telah jatuh dalam perbudakan massal dan sistemik. Sebagian besar masyarakat dunia hari ini diperbudak oleh uang. Mereka bekerja siang malam, memeras keringat dalam hitungan yang tidak wajar, tapi uang yang mereka hasilkan tidak pernah cukup, selalu dirampok oleh inflasi yang tidak alami. Penderitaan pun kian bertambah ketika dunia periklanan begitu gencar menjadikan pola hidup sebagian ‘budak-budak’ ini demikian konsumtif, sehingga sulit memisahkan mana kebutuhan dan mana keinginan. Sementara itu segelintir manusia hidup dengan konsentrasi kapital yang luar biasa, mereka-mereka ini yang bahkan sering disebut-sebut mampu (dengan izin Allah) membuat kolaps satu negara dalam hitungan detik.

Surrogate mother dengan keluarganya

Pada kehidupan yang berjalan ini, bergerilya pula sebuah ide yang muncul dari trauma dan sakit hati berkepanjangan, sebuah ide balas dendam berlandaskan jenis kelamin. Mereka yang dulu terkekang, mereka yang dulu terpinggirkan kini hendak balik mengekang dan meminggirkan, atau paling tidak ingin menyetarakan diri. Meski, ide itu kini bergulir dengan beragam derivatnya. Tapi tetap dalam inti yang sama, mengandalkan akal dan naluri jenis kelamin yang berat sebelah. Mereka menihilkan jalan hidup yang hakiki, lantaran pernah kecewa dengan agama-agama palsu yang didompleng maskulinisme.

Ide godless ini melepas perempuan jauh melampaui kodratnya. Di satu sisi lahir perempuan-perempuan yang terus memacu dirinya di ruang publik atas nama eksistensi dan kemandirian. Namun, di sisi lain menginjak punggung perempuan-perempuan miskin di sudut-sudut rumah mereka yang mewah. Perempuan-perempuan miskin inilah yang menyuapi anak-anak mereka dan mengerjakan urusan domestik lainnya. Dan pada titik yang ekstrim mereka menghendaki kenikmatan seksual melupakan perkara hamil dan melahirkan. 

Umumnya mereka berkata, tak ada– tak juga Allah- yang berhak mengatur badan kami, hidup kami. Tubuh kami, hidup kami sepenuhnya urusan kami, pilihan kami. Jika mau berurusan dengan kami buatlah kesepakatan dan kontrak-kontrak kerja dengan kami, tak perlu bawa-bawa Tuhan kalian. Pun kalian mau membawa Tuhan kalian, jangan kalian singgung urusan kami. Perkara hamil dan melahirkan pun bukan lagi perkara fitrah bagi mereka, melainkan menjadi perkara yang dapat dikomersilkan. Hamil dan melahirkan adalah pekerjaan sebagaimana kaum lelaki berdagang di pasar dengan akal dan tenaganya.

Akhirnya kondisi sistem moneter global dengan fenomena ‘budak-budak’nya dan kondisi kaum perempuan dengan keangkuhan feminismenya saling berkelindan, mendukung satu dengan lainnya. Dan Dr. Nayla Patel dengan Rumah Sakit surrogacy (peminjaman rahim) komersilnya merupakan hasil sinergi kedua kondisi itu. Rumah sakit kesuburan yang oleh para pengkritik disebut dengan pabrik bayi itu mengasramakan sedikitnya 100 orang wanita-wanita miskin India yang menyewakan rahim mereka untuk para pasangan atau individu-individu kaya Eropa.

Wanita-wanita yang kemudian disebut dengan ibu pengganti atau surrogate mother itu hidup seperti ratu selama masa kehamilannya, demi bayi ‘kelas I’ yang dikandungnya. Makanan mereka sangat dijaga, kesehatan mereka demikian terpantau, sekali lagi demi terjaminnya kesehatan janin ‘kelas I’ dalam rahimnya. Namun, seketika bayi itu lahir, bayi itu dibawa oleh orangtua ‘kelas I’nya ke negeri asalnya. Dan wanita miskin tadi kembali lagi ke keluarganya dengan membawa uang hasil kerjanya, pekerjaan berupa kehamilan.

Nubuwah Muhammad shalallahu’alaihi wa salam tentang minusnya peradaban akhir zaman memang tidak dapat dicegah, dunia berjalan mengikuti takdirnya. Para agen dan manusia yang tertipu sedang ‘menggelar karpet merah’ untuk menyambut kedatangan Dajjal, si Messiah palsu. Mereka berlomba-lomba dari segala sisi, ekonomi, sosial, teknologi, pendidikan, kesehatan, dan gerakan isme-isme godless lainnya.

Ketika mengomentari fenomena surrogacy komersial ini, Syaikh Imran Nazar Hosein seorang pakar eskatologi (ilmu akhir zaman) mengatakan, bahwa kehamilan terbaik adalah pada masa-masa awal menstruasi, tapi sistem medis Dajjal mempropagandakan sebaliknya. Ya, alasan ketidaksiapan fisik dan mental dijadikan alasan. Padahal ketidaksiapan ini dibentuk oleh sistem itu sendiri.

Remaja sejatinya adalah manusia dewasa yang sudah menerima tanggung jawab syariat, ia seharusnya sudah matang dan siap. Sementara sistem hidup dajjal telah mendesepsi kita sedemikian rupa, kini remaja dibuat matang secara seksual oleh gaya hidup berupa tontonan, bacaan, tren mode, pola makan, teknologi dsb., namun mentah secara mental dan spiritual. Fenomena remaja seperti ini saling bersengkarut dengan kondisi-kondisi pada aspek hidup yang lain, seperti lingkaran setan yang susah diputus.

Tapi nubuwwah juga menjanjikan kedatangan Muhammad Al Mahdi dan The True Messia, ‘Isa putra Maryam setelah masa-masa yang kelam itu. Dajjal akan terbirit-birit dan binasa. Hanya mereka yang bertahan dalam jalan hidup hakiki (Islam)lah yang mendapatkan kemenangan. Semoga Allah menjaga diri dan keluarga kita dalam kelompok mereka yang memperoleh kemenangan. Aamiin.

This article originally appeared in : Pabrik Bayi, Budak-Budak Yang Melahirkan Tuannya? | Muslimahzone.com | Sabtu, 24 Safar 1435 H / 28 Desember 2013 09:03 – Esqiel

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Giant Virus Resurrected from Permafrost After 30,000 Years


Giant Virus Resurrected from Permafrost After 30,000 YearsA mysterious giant virus buried for 30,000 years in Siberian permafrost has been resurrected.

The virus only infects single-celled organisms and doesn't closely resemble any known pathogens that harm humans.

Even so, the new discovery raises the possibility that as the climate warms and exploration expands in long-untouched regions of Siberia, humans could release ancient or eradicated viruses. These could include Neanderthal viruses or even smallpox that have lain dormant in the ice for thousands of years.

The replica of a neanderthall skull in the new Neanderthal Museum in the northern Croatian town of Krapina February 25, 2010.  A mysterious giant virus buried for 30,000 years in Siberian permafrost has been resurrected. The new discovery raises the possibility that as the climate warms and exploration expands in long-untouched regions of Siberia, humans could release ancient or eradicated viruses. These could include Neanderthal viruses or even smallpox that have lain dormant in the ice for thousands of years

An ultrathin section of a Pithovirus particle in an infected Acanthamoeba castellanii cell observed by transmission electron microscopy with enhancement

"There is now a non-zero probability that the pathogenic microbes that bothered [ancient human populations] could be revived, and most likely infect us as well," study co-author Jean-Michel Claverie, a bioinformatics researcher at Aix-Marseille University in France, wrote in an email. "Those pathogens could be banal bacteria (curable with antibiotics) or resistant bacteria or nasty viruses. If they have been extinct for a long time, then our immune system is no longer prepared to respond to them."

(A "non-zero" probability just means the chances of the event happening are not "impossible.")

Giant viruses

In recent years, Claverie and his colleagues have discovered a host of giant viruses, which are as big as bacteria but lack characteristic cellular machinery and metabolism of those microorganisms. At least one family of these viruses likely evolved from single-celled parasites after losing essential genes, although the origins of other giant viruses remain a mystery, Claverie said. 

In the researchers' hunt for more unknown pathogens, they took a second look at permafrost samples collected from Kolyma in the Russian Far East in 2000. Because the permafrost was layered along steep cliffs, drillers could extract samples from 30,000 years ago by drilling horizontally into the ice, thereby avoiding contamination from newer samples.

The team then took samples of this permafrost and put them in contact with amoebas (blob-like single-celled organisms) in Petri dishes. The researchers then waited to see what happened.

Some of the amoebas burst open and died. When the scientists investigated further, they found a virus had killed the amoebas.

The ancient virus infects only amoebas, not humans or other animals. This pathogen belongs to a previously unknown family of viruses, now dubbed Pithovirus, which shares only a third of its genes with any known organisms and only 11 percent of its genes with other viruses. Though the new virus resembles the largest viruses ever found, Pandoraviruses, in shape, it is more closely related to classical viruses, which have an isocahedral shape (with 20 triangular-shaped faces), Claverie said.

Pathogens reawakened?

The findings raise the possibility that other long-dormant or eradicated viruses could be resurrected from the Arctic. As the climate warms and sea ice and permafrost melt, oil and mining companies are drilling many formerly off-limit areas in Russia, raising the possibility that ancient human viruses could be released.

For instance, Neanderthals and humans both lived in Siberia as recently as 28,000 years ago, and some of the diseases that plagued both species may still be around.

"If viable virions are still there, this is a good recipe for disaster," Claverie said. "Virions" is the term used for the virus particles when they are in their inert or dormant form.

But not everyone thinks these viruses spell potential doom.

"We are inundated by millions of viruses as we move through our everyday life," said Curtis Suttle, a marine virologist at the University of British Columbia in Canada, who was not involved in the study. "Every time we swim in the sea, we swallow about a billion viruses and inhale many thousands every day. It is true that viruses will be archived in permafrost and glacial ice, but the probability that viral pathogens of humans are abundant enough, and would circulate extensively enough to affect human health, stretches scientific rationality to the breaking point."

"I would be much more concerned about the hundreds of millions of people that will be displaced by rising sea levels than the risk of being exposed to pathogens from melting permafrost."

The findings were published today (March 3) in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

This article originally appeared in : Giant Virus Resurrected from Permafrost After 30,000 Years | LiveScience.com | By Tia Ghose, Staff Writer |  Mon, Mar 3, 2014

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Glorious Germany, Hapless Higuain, bye-bye Brazil


What did the final tell us? It's okay to like Germany, Messi can't do it alone, and we're already missing the World Cup.

Germany deserved to win

In recent years Germany have enjoyed an unlikely status as the neutrals’ favourites. But with the softening of their image came the suspicion that they had lost the steely ruthlessness that brought them so much silverware. This team played the best football at Brazil 2014, but also showed the toughness to mix it with Argentina for 120 in an absorbing but attritional contest. Germany traded blows in a sapping contest then, when the opportunity to make history arrived, Mario Goetze seized it. Argentina had Messi. Germany had the best team.

Not your night, Gonzalo

For your Argentinian fall guy, look no further than Gonzalo Higuain, who compiled quite the catalogue of misery. Coming into the game with just one goal this World Cup, his lack of confidence came cruelly to the fore when played clean through by an errant Toni Kroos back header. Higuain steadied himself... and dragged the ball wide from 12 yards. Then he did have the ball in the net and wheeled away in delight, sprinting 40 yards before spotting the offside flag. After the break he was flattened by the onrushing Manuel Neuer, and suffered a final indignity when hauled off for the rat-tailed Rodrigo Palacio.


Poor Lionel Messi has spent his career being challenged to win the World Cup single-handedly. Unsurprisingly, he hasn’t been able to do it. Argentina’s ultimate failure was not down to Messi, but the failure to come to the party of the country’s other sparkling attackers – Sergio Aguero, Gonzalo Higuain, Ezequiel Lavezzi. Messi spent his tournament chasing after wayward passes, taking on half a dozen players single-handedly and trying to spark a lacklustre team into life. Nobody wins a World Cup on their own – not even Diego Maradona. Let’s just enjoy Messi for the wonderful, life-affirming player he is, and stop demanding the impossible from him.

...but James Rodriguez should have won the Golden Ball

Never mind that Colombia went out in the quarter-finals, Rodriguez was – by no small margin – the best player at the World Cup. He scored six goals in five games and produced moments of pure magic in all of them. Arjen Robben also outplayed Messi or – if you wanted to make a point about football being a team game – you could have gone with Thomas Mueller. Messi didn’t deserve the individual honour, and having to receive it, dejected, at the end of the final rather summed up a farcical decision.


The concussion debate is here to stay

Christoph Kramer’s sad withdrawal after half an hour was the third example of a player attempting to continue despite exhibiting clear signals of possible concussion – Alvaro Pereira and Javier Mascherano were the first two. As the Germany midfielder stumbled on before being armed groggily from the pitch, it was another blow to football’s credibility. This is not just FIFA’s issue – the club game is equally negligent when dealing with players at risk of serious brain injuries. And as the game grows in the US, where the NFL has agreed to pay nearly a billion dollars to ex-players over historic concussions, football will continue to attract scrutiny as long as it neglects to offer players a semblance of protection.

We can all shut up about European teams failing in the Americas

Four years ago, Spain became the first European team to win the World Cup on another continent. Tonight Germany were the first Europeans to win it in the Americas. Only six teams from the Old Continent made it out of the groups, but as early front-runners like Chile, Mexico and Colombia faded from contention, it was football’s established powers who stayed the course. Germany inflicted a brutal national trauma on Brazil, but won the hosts back by seeing off neighbours Argentina in the final. Football is a global game now – continental advantage simply doesn’t exist any more.


We’ll miss this World Cup

You’d need a heart of stone not to sigh when TV cameras focused on the sun setting behind Christ the Redeemer early in the second half. As the lights go out on Brazil 2014, the debate will continue to rage about the greatness or otherwise of this World Cup. It may have lacked an outstanding team, too many names failed to make their mark, and the latter stages failed to live up to the freewheeling group stage. Whatever. It was always entertaining, and the idea of four long years until the next one is thoroughly depressing. Whether Brazil 2014 was a particularly good example of a World Cup doesn’t matter. It was a World Cup, and that’s enough to make it brilliant. We’ll even find a way to enjoy Qatar 2022. Just you wait.

This article originally appeared in : Seven truths: Glorious Germany, Hapless Higuain, bye-bye Brazil | uk.eurosport.yahoo.com | 13 July 2014 23:22

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Brazil 2014′s two iconic goalies snubbed over FIFA’s Golden Glove


Ochoa and Howard
FIFA has dropped the ball by leaving both American goalkeeper Tim Howard and Mexican shot-stopper Guillermo Ochoa off the list of nominees for the Golden Glove.

Brazil 2014′s two iconic goalies snubbed over FIFA’s Golden Glove - The award recognises the finest goalkeeper of the World Cup - and you might have thought that the US and Mexico keepers, both of whom became global sensations for their heroics, would have made the list.

Howard in particular became, briefly, the king of the internet with an endless string of brilliant memes commemorating his staggering 16 saves against Belgium which almost guided his country to the World Cup quarter-finals.

As for Ochoa, the Mexican keeper's brilliance against Brazil almost single-handedly earned a draw against the host nation in the group stage, and he also produced some magnificent saves in the last-16 clash against the Dutch.

So if Ochoa and Howard both missed out, who did make the list?

Top of the pile - and the likely winner - is Costa Rica's Keylor Navas, who was outstanding in keeping the Ticos unbeaten throughout the entire tournament - earning three man-of-the-match awards in give games. His men only went out due to the penalty shootout brilliance of Netherlands' substitute keeper Tim Krul in the quarter-finals.

Then there's Germany's Manuel Neuer - a fine goalkeeper, it has to be said, and he did make a string of fine saves to keep Germany in the tournament when Algeria threatened to overrun them in a gripping last-16 clash.

Neuer also pulled out two stunning stops against Brazil in the semi-final; though it didn’t really matter since all he did was prevent a 7-1 scoreline being 7-3 or 7-4.

Finally, there's Argentina's Sergio Romero. There's no doubting that he's a competent goalkeeper, and he's only let three goals in during the entire tournament, and two of those were in the dead rubber final group stage match. But he has also had the benefit of playing behind the tournament's stingiest defence.

But his inclusion is bizarre, and seemingly based solely on Argentina's penalty shoot-out victory over the Dutch after a woefully turgid semi-final. Considering that he'd have been able to doze off during that game without anyone noticing (and God knows, everyone else did) he must have been fresh as a newly-laundered daisy by the time the shoot-out started - so it's hardly surprising that he was able to stop a Ron Vlaar spot kick that was simply hammered straight at him.

This article originally appeared in : Brazil 2014′s two iconic goalies snubbed over FIFA’s Golden Glove | uk.eurosport.yahoo.com | By Eurosport 12 July 2014 10:12

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A Woman Virtually Nobody Has Heard Of Is On The Verge Of Becoming The Most Powerful Woman In The World


- President Clinton is applauded by members of his White House staff engaged in budget negotiations in the White House Rose Garden (May 16, 1997).

A Woman Virtually Nobody Has Heard Of Is On The Verge Of Becoming The Most Powerful Woman In The World - It's looking increasingly likely that Ben Bernanke will no longer be the Chairman of the Federal Reserve at this time next year.

In an interview Monday, President Obama said Bernanke has "already stayed a lot longer than he wanted or he was supposed to."

When asked about his intentions regarding plans for the future, Bernanke has not said much, though the Fed chairman has decided to skip this year's Jackson Hole summit of world central bankers in August, where he would normally be responsible for delivering the keynote address.

In recent years, the Jackson Hole keynote has been an important stage for signaling big shifts in U.S. monetary policy, a key driver of economic dynamics not only in America, but around the world.

This year, the most important signal from the keynote may not be in the contents of the speech, but in who is delivering it in Bernanke's place: Federal Reserve Vice Chairwoman Janet Yellen, who is widely tipped as the frontrunner to replace Bernanke when his term expires in January.

If Obama does select Yellen to replace Bernanke, she will become the first woman ever to chair the Federal Reserve, putting her in arguably the most powerful policy-making role in the world. And of course, unless you follow the Fed, you've probably never heard of her.

(Global financial markets have reinforced the notion that the Fed chair is all-powerful in recent weeks: as fears that the Fed will begin slowing the pace of its monetary stimulus have seeped into the marketplace, U.S. government debt has sold off dramatically, causing major reverberations in virtually every market around the world. Because U.S. monetary policy is so influential, economist David Beckworth, for example, has referred to the Fed as a "monetary superpower.")

By every account, Yellen is a thoughtful and brilliant economist, which has allowed her to rise to where she is today.

"Ms. Yellen climbed the Fed ranks by being methodical rather than iconoclastic," writes Wall Street Journal reporter Jon Hilsenrath in a recent profile of the Fed vice-chairman. "She shows up at policy meetings with carefully crafted statements. Those who work with her say she arrives at the airport hours early."

"Ms. Yellen climbed the Fed ranks by being methodical rather than iconoclastic. She shows up at policy meetings with carefully crafted statements. Those who work with her say she arrives at the airport hours early." "[Yellen] is very low-key, but impresses people quickly with the depth of her understanding and the sincerity of her views," said fellow Berkeley professor Andrew Rose  in 1994, describing her as "collegial, persuasive and effective."

She has also worked with the academic elite of the economics sphere her entire career. Her mentor at Yale, where she received her Ph.D. in 1971, was Nobel-Prize winning economist James Tobin, whose legacy is enshrined in today's economics textbooks.  After graduating from Yale, she taught at Harvard for five years.  Then, she did a two-year stint (1976-1978) as a staff economist at the Federal Reserve, where she met her husband, fellow economist and future Nobel Prize winner George Akerlof.

 After the Federal Reserve, Yellen was faculty at the London School of Economics for two years. Then, in 1980, she accepted a position at the University of California, Berkeley, where she stayed until her appointment to the Federal Reserve Board of Governors in 1994 by President Bill Clinton.

Months before his April 1994 nomination of Yellen, Clinton had selected one of Yellen's long-time colleagues in the Berkeley economics department, Laura D'Andrea Tyson, to chair the Council of Economic Advisers (making Tyson his top economist at the White House).

According to an L.A. Times report Clinton's 1994 nomination of Yellen, Tyson was " deeply involved in the selection process for filling the Fed vacancies." The report went on to assert that " Yellen, who would succeed Republican Wayne Angell on the board, also fulfills the Administration's desire to name a woman or a minority to offset the appointment of [Alan] Blinder, a white male, to be Fed vice chairman."

Janet Yellen
(Tyson herself was reportedly tapped by Clinton over then-World Bank economist Larry Summers because Summers and Clinton's vice president, Al Gore, didn't see eye-to-eye on issues related to environmental economics.)

So began Yellen's long career in monetary policy-making, which has already been momentous in reshaping the directives that have emanated from the central bank and driven major changes in the global economic landscape.

One of the defining moments for Yellen that crystallized both her economic views and her character traits came two years into her tenure on the FOMC.

In a recent profile of Yellen, New York Times correspondent Binyamin Appelbaum tells the story:

 In July 1996, the  Federal Reserve  broke the metronomic routine of its closed-door policy-making meetings to hold an unusual debate. The Fed’s powerful chairman, Alan Greenspan, saw a chance for the first time in decades to drive annual inflation all the way down to zero, achieving the price stability he had long regarded as the central bank’s primary mission.

But Janet L. Yellen , then a relatively new and little-known Fed governor, talked Mr. Greenspan to a standstill that day, arguing that a little inflation was a good thing. She marshaled academic research that showed it would reduce the depth and frequency of recessions, articulating a view that has prevailed at the Fed. And as the Fed’s vice chairwoman since 2010, Ms. Yellen has played a leading role in cementing the central bank’s commitment to keep prices rising about 2 percent each year.

 Inflation has become one of the biggest stories in economics recently as annual inflation rates have been declining and seem stuck persistently below the Fed's 2.5% threshold for tightening monetary policy. Today's consumer price index release revealed that core price inflation remained stubbornly unchanged at 1.7% in May.

Persistently below-target inflation readings have provided support for the argument that the Fed should continue with its controversial bond-buying program aimed at providing monetary stimulus to the economy.

As arguably the most dovish member of the FOMC – meaning she tends to focus on unemployment concerns rather than keeping inflation at bay – Yellen has undoubtedly had a big role in shaping the course of current policy.

Yet Yellen's record shows that she has not always argued for easy monetary policy and higher inflation, despite her dovish tilt.

 "T he risk of an increase in inflation has definitely  risen, and I would characterize the economy as operating in an  inflationary danger zone." — Janet Yellen, September 1996 Later in 1996, the economy was expanding, labor markets were tight, but core inflation was on a steady downward trend.

At the September 1996 FOMC meeting, though, Yellen argued, " I  conclude that the risk of an increase in inflation has definitely  risen, and I would characterize the economy as operating in an  inflationary danger zone."

 While Yellen ultimately supported then-Chairman Alan Greenspan's decision to leave interest rates unchanged, she couched her decision by saying, "I find myself very close to the margin and  would also have been quite willing to support an upward adjustment of  25 basis points today, had you proposed that."

In 1996, Yellen's argument rested on the thesis that the labor market was too tight.

To be sure, things are much different now – the unemployment rate remains stubbornly elevated around current levels at 7.6%, and concerns over inflation appear to be all but dead at this point.

 And given the Fed's current policy stance – committed to unprecedented monetary easing until signs of improvement in the labor market re-emerge – perhaps it's just as accurate to say that Yellen has already become the most powerful woman in history.

Taking over the chairmanship in January would cement it.

This article originally appeared in : A Woman Virtually Nobody Has Heard Of Is On The Verge Of Becoming The Most Powerful Woman In The World | businessinsider.com | By Matthew Boesler June 18, 2013 1:42 PM

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