Giant Virus Resurrected from Permafrost After 30,000 Years

Giant Virus Resurrected from Permafrost After 30,000 YearsA mysterious giant virus buried for 30,000 years in Siberian permafrost has been resurrected.

The virus only infects single-celled organisms and doesn't closely resemble any known pathogens that harm humans.

Even so, the new discovery raises the possibility that as the climate warms and exploration expands in long-untouched regions of Siberia, humans could release ancient or eradicated viruses. These could include Neanderthal viruses or even smallpox that have lain dormant in the ice for thousands of years.

The replica of a neanderthall skull in the new Neanderthal Museum in the northern Croatian town of Krapina February 25, 2010.  A mysterious giant virus buried for 30,000 years in Siberian permafrost has been resurrected. The new discovery raises the possibility that as the climate warms and exploration expands in long-untouched regions of Siberia, humans could release ancient or eradicated viruses. These could include Neanderthal viruses or even smallpox that have lain dormant in the ice for thousands of years

An ultrathin section of a Pithovirus particle in an infected Acanthamoeba castellanii cell observed by transmission electron microscopy with enhancement

"There is now a non-zero probability that the pathogenic microbes that bothered [ancient human populations] could be revived, and most likely infect us as well," study co-author Jean-Michel Claverie, a bioinformatics researcher at Aix-Marseille University in France, wrote in an email. "Those pathogens could be banal bacteria (curable with antibiotics) or resistant bacteria or nasty viruses. If they have been extinct for a long time, then our immune system is no longer prepared to respond to them."

(A "non-zero" probability just means the chances of the event happening are not "impossible.")

Giant viruses

In recent years, Claverie and his colleagues have discovered a host of giant viruses, which are as big as bacteria but lack characteristic cellular machinery and metabolism of those microorganisms. At least one family of these viruses likely evolved from single-celled parasites after losing essential genes, although the origins of other giant viruses remain a mystery, Claverie said. 

In the researchers' hunt for more unknown pathogens, they took a second look at permafrost samples collected from Kolyma in the Russian Far East in 2000. Because the permafrost was layered along steep cliffs, drillers could extract samples from 30,000 years ago by drilling horizontally into the ice, thereby avoiding contamination from newer samples.

The team then took samples of this permafrost and put them in contact with amoebas (blob-like single-celled organisms) in Petri dishes. The researchers then waited to see what happened.

Some of the amoebas burst open and died. When the scientists investigated further, they found a virus had killed the amoebas.

The ancient virus infects only amoebas, not humans or other animals. This pathogen belongs to a previously unknown family of viruses, now dubbed Pithovirus, which shares only a third of its genes with any known organisms and only 11 percent of its genes with other viruses. Though the new virus resembles the largest viruses ever found, Pandoraviruses, in shape, it is more closely related to classical viruses, which have an isocahedral shape (with 20 triangular-shaped faces), Claverie said.

Pathogens reawakened?

The findings raise the possibility that other long-dormant or eradicated viruses could be resurrected from the Arctic. As the climate warms and sea ice and permafrost melt, oil and mining companies are drilling many formerly off-limit areas in Russia, raising the possibility that ancient human viruses could be released.

For instance, Neanderthals and humans both lived in Siberia as recently as 28,000 years ago, and some of the diseases that plagued both species may still be around.

"If viable virions are still there, this is a good recipe for disaster," Claverie said. "Virions" is the term used for the virus particles when they are in their inert or dormant form.

But not everyone thinks these viruses spell potential doom.

"We are inundated by millions of viruses as we move through our everyday life," said Curtis Suttle, a marine virologist at the University of British Columbia in Canada, who was not involved in the study. "Every time we swim in the sea, we swallow about a billion viruses and inhale many thousands every day. It is true that viruses will be archived in permafrost and glacial ice, but the probability that viral pathogens of humans are abundant enough, and would circulate extensively enough to affect human health, stretches scientific rationality to the breaking point."

"I would be much more concerned about the hundreds of millions of people that will be displaced by rising sea levels than the risk of being exposed to pathogens from melting permafrost."

The findings were published today (March 3) in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

This article originally appeared in : Giant Virus Resurrected from Permafrost After 30,000 Years | | By Tia Ghose, Staff Writer |  Mon, Mar 3, 2014

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Glorious Germany, Hapless Higuain, bye-bye Brazil

What did the final tell us? It's okay to like Germany, Messi can't do it alone, and we're already missing the World Cup.

Germany deserved to win

In recent years Germany have enjoyed an unlikely status as the neutrals’ favourites. But with the softening of their image came the suspicion that they had lost the steely ruthlessness that brought them so much silverware. This team played the best football at Brazil 2014, but also showed the toughness to mix it with Argentina for 120 in an absorbing but attritional contest. Germany traded blows in a sapping contest then, when the opportunity to make history arrived, Mario Goetze seized it. Argentina had Messi. Germany had the best team.

Not your night, Gonzalo

For your Argentinian fall guy, look no further than Gonzalo Higuain, who compiled quite the catalogue of misery. Coming into the game with just one goal this World Cup, his lack of confidence came cruelly to the fore when played clean through by an errant Toni Kroos back header. Higuain steadied himself... and dragged the ball wide from 12 yards. Then he did have the ball in the net and wheeled away in delight, sprinting 40 yards before spotting the offside flag. After the break he was flattened by the onrushing Manuel Neuer, and suffered a final indignity when hauled off for the rat-tailed Rodrigo Palacio.

Poor Lionel Messi has spent his career being challenged to win the World Cup single-handedly. Unsurprisingly, he hasn’t been able to do it. Argentina’s ultimate failure was not down to Messi, but the failure to come to the party of the country’s other sparkling attackers – Sergio Aguero, Gonzalo Higuain, Ezequiel Lavezzi. Messi spent his tournament chasing after wayward passes, taking on half a dozen players single-handedly and trying to spark a lacklustre team into life. Nobody wins a World Cup on their own – not even Diego Maradona. Let’s just enjoy Messi for the wonderful, life-affirming player he is, and stop demanding the impossible from him.

...but James Rodriguez should have won the Golden Ball

Never mind that Colombia went out in the quarter-finals, Rodriguez was – by no small margin – the best player at the World Cup. He scored six goals in five games and produced moments of pure magic in all of them. Arjen Robben also outplayed Messi or – if you wanted to make a point about football being a team game – you could have gone with Thomas Mueller. Messi didn’t deserve the individual honour, and having to receive it, dejected, at the end of the final rather summed up a farcical decision.

The concussion debate is here to stay

Christoph Kramer’s sad withdrawal after half an hour was the third example of a player attempting to continue despite exhibiting clear signals of possible concussion – Alvaro Pereira and Javier Mascherano were the first two. As the Germany midfielder stumbled on before being armed groggily from the pitch, it was another blow to football’s credibility. This is not just FIFA’s issue – the club game is equally negligent when dealing with players at risk of serious brain injuries. And as the game grows in the US, where the NFL has agreed to pay nearly a billion dollars to ex-players over historic concussions, football will continue to attract scrutiny as long as it neglects to offer players a semblance of protection.

We can all shut up about European teams failing in the Americas

Four years ago, Spain became the first European team to win the World Cup on another continent. Tonight Germany were the first Europeans to win it in the Americas. Only six teams from the Old Continent made it out of the groups, but as early front-runners like Chile, Mexico and Colombia faded from contention, it was football’s established powers who stayed the course. Germany inflicted a brutal national trauma on Brazil, but won the hosts back by seeing off neighbours Argentina in the final. Football is a global game now – continental advantage simply doesn’t exist any more.

We’ll miss this World Cup

You’d need a heart of stone not to sigh when TV cameras focused on the sun setting behind Christ the Redeemer early in the second half. As the lights go out on Brazil 2014, the debate will continue to rage about the greatness or otherwise of this World Cup. It may have lacked an outstanding team, too many names failed to make their mark, and the latter stages failed to live up to the freewheeling group stage. Whatever. It was always entertaining, and the idea of four long years until the next one is thoroughly depressing. Whether Brazil 2014 was a particularly good example of a World Cup doesn’t matter. It was a World Cup, and that’s enough to make it brilliant. We’ll even find a way to enjoy Qatar 2022. Just you wait.

This article originally appeared in : Seven truths: Glorious Germany, Hapless Higuain, bye-bye Brazil | | 13 July 2014 23:22

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Brazil 2014′s two iconic goalies snubbed over FIFA’s Golden Glove

Ochoa and Howard
FIFA has dropped the ball by leaving both American goalkeeper Tim Howard and Mexican shot-stopper Guillermo Ochoa off the list of nominees for the Golden Glove.

Brazil 2014′s two iconic goalies snubbed over FIFA’s Golden Glove - The award recognises the finest goalkeeper of the World Cup - and you might have thought that the US and Mexico keepers, both of whom became global sensations for their heroics, would have made the list.

Howard in particular became, briefly, the king of the internet with an endless string of brilliant memes commemorating his staggering 16 saves against Belgium which almost guided his country to the World Cup quarter-finals.

As for Ochoa, the Mexican keeper's brilliance against Brazil almost single-handedly earned a draw against the host nation in the group stage, and he also produced some magnificent saves in the last-16 clash against the Dutch.

So if Ochoa and Howard both missed out, who did make the list?

Top of the pile - and the likely winner - is Costa Rica's Keylor Navas, who was outstanding in keeping the Ticos unbeaten throughout the entire tournament - earning three man-of-the-match awards in give games. His men only went out due to the penalty shootout brilliance of Netherlands' substitute keeper Tim Krul in the quarter-finals.

Then there's Germany's Manuel Neuer - a fine goalkeeper, it has to be said, and he did make a string of fine saves to keep Germany in the tournament when Algeria threatened to overrun them in a gripping last-16 clash.

Neuer also pulled out two stunning stops against Brazil in the semi-final; though it didn’t really matter since all he did was prevent a 7-1 scoreline being 7-3 or 7-4.

Finally, there's Argentina's Sergio Romero. There's no doubting that he's a competent goalkeeper, and he's only let three goals in during the entire tournament, and two of those were in the dead rubber final group stage match. But he has also had the benefit of playing behind the tournament's stingiest defence.

But his inclusion is bizarre, and seemingly based solely on Argentina's penalty shoot-out victory over the Dutch after a woefully turgid semi-final. Considering that he'd have been able to doze off during that game without anyone noticing (and God knows, everyone else did) he must have been fresh as a newly-laundered daisy by the time the shoot-out started - so it's hardly surprising that he was able to stop a Ron Vlaar spot kick that was simply hammered straight at him.

This article originally appeared in : Brazil 2014′s two iconic goalies snubbed over FIFA’s Golden Glove | | By Eurosport 12 July 2014 10:12

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A Woman Virtually Nobody Has Heard Of Is On The Verge Of Becoming The Most Powerful Woman In The World

- President Clinton is applauded by members of his White House staff engaged in budget negotiations in the White House Rose Garden (May 16, 1997).

A Woman Virtually Nobody Has Heard Of Is On The Verge Of Becoming The Most Powerful Woman In The World - It's looking increasingly likely that Ben Bernanke will no longer be the Chairman of the Federal Reserve at this time next year.

In an interview Monday, President Obama said Bernanke has "already stayed a lot longer than he wanted or he was supposed to."

When asked about his intentions regarding plans for the future, Bernanke has not said much, though the Fed chairman has decided to skip this year's Jackson Hole summit of world central bankers in August, where he would normally be responsible for delivering the keynote address.

In recent years, the Jackson Hole keynote has been an important stage for signaling big shifts in U.S. monetary policy, a key driver of economic dynamics not only in America, but around the world.

This year, the most important signal from the keynote may not be in the contents of the speech, but in who is delivering it in Bernanke's place: Federal Reserve Vice Chairwoman Janet Yellen, who is widely tipped as the frontrunner to replace Bernanke when his term expires in January.

If Obama does select Yellen to replace Bernanke, she will become the first woman ever to chair the Federal Reserve, putting her in arguably the most powerful policy-making role in the world. And of course, unless you follow the Fed, you've probably never heard of her.

(Global financial markets have reinforced the notion that the Fed chair is all-powerful in recent weeks: as fears that the Fed will begin slowing the pace of its monetary stimulus have seeped into the marketplace, U.S. government debt has sold off dramatically, causing major reverberations in virtually every market around the world. Because U.S. monetary policy is so influential, economist David Beckworth, for example, has referred to the Fed as a "monetary superpower.")

By every account, Yellen is a thoughtful and brilliant economist, which has allowed her to rise to where she is today.

"Ms. Yellen climbed the Fed ranks by being methodical rather than iconoclastic," writes Wall Street Journal reporter Jon Hilsenrath in a recent profile of the Fed vice-chairman. "She shows up at policy meetings with carefully crafted statements. Those who work with her say she arrives at the airport hours early."

"Ms. Yellen climbed the Fed ranks by being methodical rather than iconoclastic. She shows up at policy meetings with carefully crafted statements. Those who work with her say she arrives at the airport hours early." "[Yellen] is very low-key, but impresses people quickly with the depth of her understanding and the sincerity of her views," said fellow Berkeley professor Andrew Rose  in 1994, describing her as "collegial, persuasive and effective."

She has also worked with the academic elite of the economics sphere her entire career. Her mentor at Yale, where she received her Ph.D. in 1971, was Nobel-Prize winning economist James Tobin, whose legacy is enshrined in today's economics textbooks.  After graduating from Yale, she taught at Harvard for five years.  Then, she did a two-year stint (1976-1978) as a staff economist at the Federal Reserve, where she met her husband, fellow economist and future Nobel Prize winner George Akerlof.

 After the Federal Reserve, Yellen was faculty at the London School of Economics for two years. Then, in 1980, she accepted a position at the University of California, Berkeley, where she stayed until her appointment to the Federal Reserve Board of Governors in 1994 by President Bill Clinton.

Months before his April 1994 nomination of Yellen, Clinton had selected one of Yellen's long-time colleagues in the Berkeley economics department, Laura D'Andrea Tyson, to chair the Council of Economic Advisers (making Tyson his top economist at the White House).

According to an L.A. Times report Clinton's 1994 nomination of Yellen, Tyson was " deeply involved in the selection process for filling the Fed vacancies." The report went on to assert that " Yellen, who would succeed Republican Wayne Angell on the board, also fulfills the Administration's desire to name a woman or a minority to offset the appointment of [Alan] Blinder, a white male, to be Fed vice chairman."

Janet Yellen
(Tyson herself was reportedly tapped by Clinton over then-World Bank economist Larry Summers because Summers and Clinton's vice president, Al Gore, didn't see eye-to-eye on issues related to environmental economics.)

So began Yellen's long career in monetary policy-making, which has already been momentous in reshaping the directives that have emanated from the central bank and driven major changes in the global economic landscape.

One of the defining moments for Yellen that crystallized both her economic views and her character traits came two years into her tenure on the FOMC.

In a recent profile of Yellen, New York Times correspondent Binyamin Appelbaum tells the story:

 In July 1996, the  Federal Reserve  broke the metronomic routine of its closed-door policy-making meetings to hold an unusual debate. The Fed’s powerful chairman, Alan Greenspan, saw a chance for the first time in decades to drive annual inflation all the way down to zero, achieving the price stability he had long regarded as the central bank’s primary mission.

But Janet L. Yellen , then a relatively new and little-known Fed governor, talked Mr. Greenspan to a standstill that day, arguing that a little inflation was a good thing. She marshaled academic research that showed it would reduce the depth and frequency of recessions, articulating a view that has prevailed at the Fed. And as the Fed’s vice chairwoman since 2010, Ms. Yellen has played a leading role in cementing the central bank’s commitment to keep prices rising about 2 percent each year.

 Inflation has become one of the biggest stories in economics recently as annual inflation rates have been declining and seem stuck persistently below the Fed's 2.5% threshold for tightening monetary policy. Today's consumer price index release revealed that core price inflation remained stubbornly unchanged at 1.7% in May.

Persistently below-target inflation readings have provided support for the argument that the Fed should continue with its controversial bond-buying program aimed at providing monetary stimulus to the economy.

As arguably the most dovish member of the FOMC – meaning she tends to focus on unemployment concerns rather than keeping inflation at bay – Yellen has undoubtedly had a big role in shaping the course of current policy.

Yet Yellen's record shows that she has not always argued for easy monetary policy and higher inflation, despite her dovish tilt.

 "T he risk of an increase in inflation has definitely  risen, and I would characterize the economy as operating in an  inflationary danger zone." — Janet Yellen, September 1996 Later in 1996, the economy was expanding, labor markets were tight, but core inflation was on a steady downward trend.

At the September 1996 FOMC meeting, though, Yellen argued, " I  conclude that the risk of an increase in inflation has definitely  risen, and I would characterize the economy as operating in an  inflationary danger zone."

 While Yellen ultimately supported then-Chairman Alan Greenspan's decision to leave interest rates unchanged, she couched her decision by saying, "I find myself very close to the margin and  would also have been quite willing to support an upward adjustment of  25 basis points today, had you proposed that."

In 1996, Yellen's argument rested on the thesis that the labor market was too tight.

To be sure, things are much different now – the unemployment rate remains stubbornly elevated around current levels at 7.6%, and concerns over inflation appear to be all but dead at this point.

 And given the Fed's current policy stance – committed to unprecedented monetary easing until signs of improvement in the labor market re-emerge – perhaps it's just as accurate to say that Yellen has already become the most powerful woman in history.

Taking over the chairmanship in January would cement it.

This article originally appeared in : A Woman Virtually Nobody Has Heard Of Is On The Verge Of Becoming The Most Powerful Woman In The World | | By Matthew Boesler June 18, 2013 1:42 PM

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Ternyata Kampanye Pencitraan "Dizalimi" Sudah tak Efektif Lagi

Pedagang menata kaos bergambar Jokowi di kawasan Pasar Baru, Jakarta Pusat, Kamis (27/3). (foto: Raisan Al Farisi) 

Ternyata Kampanye Pencitraan "Dizalimi" Sudah tak Efektif Lagi -- Pengamat Politik Universitas Paramadina Herdi Sahrasad menilai kampanye pencitraan "dizalimi" tidak efektif lagi. Karena, masyarakat semakin cerdas dan selektif dengan menerima informasi dari media cetak, elektronik.

"Bisa dimanfaatkan kelompok pak Jokowi untuk memberi kesan dizalimi atau disudutkan. Tapi kesan dizalimi itu tidak efektif karena masyarakat semakin cerdas," kata Herdi Sahrasad dalam keterangan tertulis di Jakarta, Sabtu (10/5).

Herdi menanggapi tulisan "RIP Jokowi" yang sempat beredar di media sosial dan hingga kini pelaku penyebar tulisan tersebut belum diketahui.

Menurut dosen Pasca Sarjana Universitas Paramadina tersebut, apabila tim Jokowi memanfaatkan hal tersebut menjadi kesan disudutkan itu tidak berguna karena masyarakat dapat mengakses berbagai macam informasi dari media cetak, elektronik, maupun sosial.

Herdi mengatakan pencitraan dizalimi terkesan sudah biasa bagi publik karena seringkali diulang-ulang."Pencitraan dizalimi terkesan pengulangan-pengulangan yang memuakkan," kata dia.

Dalam ilmu budaya,lanjutnya, pengulangan ditindas, itu termasuk "mannerism" sudah usang dan tidak terlalu efektif untuk mempengaruhi masyarakat.

Masyarakat saat ini ingin melihat kampanye yang mendidik dengan misi maupun visi yang jelas dan terukur.

Ia mencontohkan dalam visi dan misi tersebut ada cara, mekanisme maupun metode bagaimana memajukan kedaulatan ekonomi.

"Jadi harus dijelaskan bagaimana kebijakan maupun langkahnya. Masyarakat ingin tahu itu," kata dia.

This article originally appeared in : Kampanye Pencitraan "Dizalimi" Sudah tak Efektif  | | Sabtu, 10 Mei 2014, 13:43 WIB

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Agar Tubuh Tak Cepat Letih Selama Berpuasa, Ini Rumus Minum yang Benar

Agar Tubuh Tak Cepat Letih Selama Berpuasa, Ini Rumus Minum yang Benar 

Agar Tubuh Tak Cepat Letih Selama Berpuasa, Ini Rumus Minum yang Benar - Laporan Wartawan, Daniel Ngantung

Agar Tubuh Tak Cepat Letih Selama Berpuasa, Ini Rumus Minum yang Benar - Kala berpuasa jam makan dan minum boleh saja berubah, namun Anda harus tetap menjaga tubuh terhidrasi dengan mengonsumsi air putih secukupnya.

Cairan menjadi komponen yang sangat penting bagi tubuh. Pasalnya hampir 60 persen dari tubuh kita adalah cairan.

Jika tubuh tidak mendapatkan asupan cairan yang cukup (dehidrasi), tubuh akan terasa cepat letih, bibir kering, konsentrasi Anda juga terganggu. Anda pun tidak mampu melaksanakan ibadah puasa dengan maksimal.

Oleh karenanya, penting bagi Anda untuk tetap menjaga status hidrasi tubuh, kapanpun dan di manapun.

Lantas bagaimana menjaga tubuh tetap terhidrasi saat berpuasa? Barapa takaran yang dianjurkan?

Sebagai solusinya, Aqua mencoba memberi solusi dengan mengenalkan pola minum air putih 2+4+2 di kala berpuasa.

"Idealnya, tubuh membutuhkan 2 liter air atau delapan gelas ukuran 240 mililiter per hari. Supaya asupannya seimbang saat berpuasa, Anda bisa mengonsumsinya dengan pola 2+4+2," ujar Health Marketing Director PT Tirta Investama Danone Aqua Pradono Handojo, MHA, saat diskusi kesehatan "Aqua 2+4+2: Puasa Sehat Bersama Aqua" di Ritz Carlton, Rabu (25/6/2024).

Pola tersebut terdiri dari dua gelas air putih saat berbuka, empat gelas saat makan malam, dan dua gelas air putih saat sahur.

Begitu pentingnya peran air putih, pakar gizi Dr. dr. Saptawati Bardosono M.Sc di kesempatan yang sama menegaskan air putih tidak boleh disubsitusi dengan air jenis lain, seperti minuman manis, bersoda dan kafein.

"Minuman manis boleh saja untuk menormalkan kadar gula darah asalkan tidak berlebihan. Begitu pula dengan kopi. Yang pasti asupan air putih tetap harus terpenuhi," ujar Saptawati yang juga menjabat sebagai Ketua Indonesian Hydration Working Group (IHWG).

Asupan air juga bisa dipenuhi dengan mengonsumsi buah-buahan dan sayur-mayur yang disajikan dengan kuah.

Di samping itu, ia juga menyarankan untuk memilih air putih yang berkualitas yaitu tidak berbau, tidak berwarna, dan tidak berasa.

Secara kasat mata, Anda dapat mengetahui status hidrasi tubuh dengan melakukan pengecekan warna urin secara rutin. PURI (pemeriksaan urin sendiri) memungkinkan Anda membandingkan warna urin dengan warna grafik pada stiker PURI yang akan menunjukkan apakah tubuh sudah terhidrasi. 

This article originally appeared in : Agar Tubuh Tak Cepat Letih Selama Berpuasa, Ini Rumus Minum yang Benar | | Jum, 27 Jun 2014

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Kate Middleton Advises Cressida Bonas to 'Look Stunning and Sexy' to Win Prince Harry Back

Kate Middleton Advises Cressida Bonas to 'Look Stunning and Sexy' to Win Prince Harry Back - Kate Middleton is reportedly trying to patch up Prince Harry and Cressida Bonas. 

Prince Harry, who is third in line to the throne, and Bonas were spotted together for the first time last year in February while skiing in Verbier, Switzerland.

The 25-year-old daughter of 1960s model Lady Mary Gaye Curzon and Old Harrovian businessman Jeffrey Bonas, came to support the 29-year-old royal at the We Day UK held at Wembley Arena on 7 March in London too. However, the two split in April.

A source told Now magazine that the 32-year-old Duchess of Cambridge is giving Bonas tips on how to win Prince Harry back.

"Cressida's absolutely everywhere right now, looking like she's having the time of her life," a friend close to Bonas said.

"She looks stunning and sexy and it's not by accident. It's all part of a plan she's hatched with Kate and Princesses Beatrice and Eugenie. They've told her to be very visible so Harry can see what he's missing," the source added.

Though it was previously reported that Kate Middleton was not keen on Bonas, who is the half-sister to Prince William's former girlfriend, actress and model Isabella Anstruther-Gough-Calthorpe, the two reportedly became close last autumn when reports emerged that the couple could be getting engaged.

"Kate had taken Cress under her wing and showed her the royal ropes. They really bonded and Kate was quite upset when she and Harry split as it reminded her of when she separated from William in 2007," the insider said.

"Back then, when she realised she wanted him back, Kate slipped into her slinkiest outfits, went to William's favourite nightspots, got seen with other guys - and did everything she could to make her ex realise what he was missing. Now Cress is using the same tactics," the source added.

This article originally appeared in : Kate Middleton Advises Cressida Bonas to 'Look Stunning and Sexy' to Win Prince Harry Back | | By Simi John | Sun, Jul 13, 2014

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